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河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩整治探究

時間:2017-02-22 來源:河北師范大學 作者:王琳 本文字數:6674字
  摘 要
  
  自 20 世紀末以來,隨著我國經濟的快速發展,產能過剩日益成為河北省建設“工業強省”和產業結構轉型升級的一大難題,同時也給河北省的經濟發展帶來了一系列的消極影響。目前,在河北省的各大產業當中,無論是在鋼鐵、水泥、平板玻璃、電解鋁、有色金屬等傳統產業還是在光伏產業、風電、多晶硅等新興產業當中都存在著不同程度的產能過剩問題,其中鋼鐵行業的產能過剩問題尤為突出。作為傳統工業大省的河北省,隨著改革開放以來經濟的迅猛發展,鋼鐵產量持續增長,成為我國鋼鐵產量最大的省份,占據全國鋼鐵產量的四分之一以上,因此還出現了鋼鐵產量“世界第一,中國第二,河北第三”的說法。然而,自從 2008 年世界性金融危機以來,我國經濟整體發展比較緩慢,經濟整體下行壓力大,無論是國內市場還是國際市場,對鋼鐵的需求量都有明顯下降。在鋼鐵的供給量持續增長而需求量明顯下降的情況下,河北省的鋼鐵行業就出現了嚴重的產能過剩,而且具有結構性過剩和階段性過剩并存的特征。
  
  鋼鐵行業產能嚴重過剩,給河北省鋼鐵行業乃至整個國民經濟的發展帶來了極大的危害。首先,由于鋼鐵行業產能嚴重過剩,鋼鐵企業的銷售額逐年下降,利潤率大幅度下滑,很多鋼鐵企業持續虧損;其次,在鋼鐵行業產能嚴重過剩的情況下,很多競爭力較小的中小型鋼鐵企業被兼并甚至破產,大量工人面臨著失業的風險。這樣不僅會影響人們的正常生活,還會增加社會的負擔;最后,作為鋼鐵大省,鋼鐵產能嚴重過剩必然會給河北省帶來一系列的環境問題。由于鋼鐵生產過程中產生了煙塵二氧化硫等污染物,使得河北省的空氣質量連年下降,霧霾天氣愈來愈多,最終會給人們的身體健康和生活質量帶來危害。
  
  在京津冀協同發展的背景下,河北省面臨著承接北京和天津產業轉移的重大任務,要實現在承接這些產業的同時更好地發展自己,實現產業的轉型升級,河北省必須解決產能過剩這一難題,因此,從鋼鐵行業角度研究河北省的產能過剩問題,對治理河北省產能過剩,促進河北經濟結構轉型升級,促使河北省從鋼鐵大省轉變為鋼鐵強省,推進河北“工業強省”目標的實現具有重要的現實意義。本文依據產能過剩的基本理論,在對河北省鋼鐵行業發展歷程及產能過剩現狀、特點等實證研究的基礎上,分析了鋼鐵行業產能過剩形成的深層次原因,并借鑒國外鋼鐵行業產能過剩治理的經驗,提出了一系列治理產能過剩的對策建議。本文從以下七個部分進行論述:
  
  第一部分:產能過剩相關概念界定和理論研究概述。這部分首先界定產能過剩的內涵、評價指標及特征,分析比較了產能過剩與生產過剩、產量過剩等概念,提出了這些之間的異同點。同時,介紹了產能過剩的相關理論,主要包括資本循環和資本主義生產過剩理論、產業生命周期理論、投資過剩理論和軟預算約束理論。
  
  第二部分:河北省鋼鐵行業的發展歷程和現狀。這部分主要介紹了新中國成立以來河北省鋼鐵行業經歷的三個發展階段,即體系確立階段、行業反復調整階段及新發展階段。在此基礎上分析了河北省鋼鐵行業的優勢和不足。
  
  第三部分:河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩現狀分析。這部分主要介紹了河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩的表現、特征以及產能過剩的危害等相關內容。
  
  第四部分:河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩的成因分析。這部分從政府、市場和企業三個層面探討了河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩產生的原因,這些原因既包括政府的投資沖動,產業發展政策不合理;市場的進入退出機制不健全,供需矛盾嚴重失衡;又包括企業的技術水平落后、產品同質化、片面追求規模競爭效應等原因。
  
  第五部分:國外鋼鐵行業產能過剩治理的經驗借鑒與啟示。這部分主要介紹了美國、日本兩個國家產能過剩的歷史和治理產能過剩的方法和措施,總結了其產能過剩治理的經驗,在此基礎上探討了國外產能過剩的治理帶給我們的啟示。
  
  第六部分:推進河北省鋼鐵行業治理產能過剩的對策建議。這部分從供給和需求兩個方面提出了推動政府、市場和企業三個主體治理鋼鐵行業產能過剩的對策建議。主要包括:轉變政府職能,實現綠色 GDP 考核機制、完善化解過剩產能的政策法規體系;完善市場進入和退出機制、利用大數據平臺,強化過剩產能的跟蹤治理;大力推進科技創新,促進產品結構優化和提升品質績效、推進鋼鐵行業供給側結構性改革等。
  
  第七部分:結論。這部分對論文文的主要觀點進行了概括,并且指出了在研究過程中存在的一些不足之處,為將來進一步深入研究河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩問題奠定了基礎。
  
  關鍵詞:河北省 鋼鐵行業 產能過剩 成因 對策建議
  
  Abstract
  
  Since the end of the 20th century, with the rapid development of our economy,overcapacity becomes the difficulty for of Hebei province to the transformation andupgrading of industrial structure. And it has brought a series of negative influences. To theeconomic development of Hebei province. At present, whether in the steel, cement, plate glass,aluminum, non-ferrous metals and other traditional industries or in the photovoltaic industry,wind power, polysilicon and other new industries there are different levels of excess capacityof contradictions, and iron and steel industry overcapacity problem is particularly prominent.
  
  With the rapid development of the economy the reform and opening up, as a traditionalindustry in Hebei province, the steel production continues to grow, and become the largestprovince in China's steel production, accounted for more than a quarter of the national steelproduction. So steel production also be called “the first in world, the second in China's andthird in hebe”.However, since the financial crisis in 2008, because of the slower overalleconomic development in our country and the overall economic downward pressure, both inthe domestic market and international market, the demand for steel has declined obviously.
  
  Sustained growth in steel supply and demand in the situation, the steel industry in Hebeiprovince has been a serious excess capacity, and has the characteristics of structural surplusand periodic surplus coexist.
  
  Severe overcapacity, iron and steel industry to the development of steel industry in Hebeiprovince and even the entire national economy has brought great harm. First, since the ironand steel industry of excess capacity, the sales of iron and steel enterprises declined year byyear, margin sharply decline, a lot of iron and steel enterprise continuing losses; Second,under the condition of severe overcapacity in the steel industry, a lot of competitive small andmedium-sized iron and steel enterprises mergers or even bankruptcy, the risk of a largenumber of workers facing unemployment. This will not only affect the normal life of people,also can increase the social burden; Finally, as a big province of steel, steel seriousovercapacity will inevitably bring a series of environmental problems in Hebei province.
  
  Sulfur dioxide that the smoke and dust produced in the process of iron and steel productionpollutants makes the air quality declining. Haze weather more and more eventually givebrought harm people's health and quality of life.
  
  Under the background of the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Hebeiprovince faces and undertakes the important task of Beijing and Tianjin industry transfer, inorder to realize the undertake the industry to better develop themselves. At present, the excesscapacity is a big problem restricting the development of economy in Hebei province,especially the iron and steel industry overcapacity. Therefore, from the Angle iron and steelindustry to study the overcapacity problem in Hebei province. And it has important practicalsignificance on promoting transformation and upgrading of economic structure in Hebei,prompting from the big province of steel to steel strong province in Hebei province.
  
  According to the basic theory of excess production capacity, the steel industry in Hebeidevelopment course and the present situation of excess production capacity, features, etc, onthe basis of empirical study, analyzes the underlying reasons for the formation of overcapacityin the steel industry, and based on the experience of the foreign iron and steel industryovercapacity management, put forward a series of management countermeasures of excesscapacity, this paper discusses from the following seven parts:
  
  The first part: the overcapacity relevant concept definition and theoretical analysis. Thispart first defined the connotation of excess production capacity, evaluation index andcharacteristics; analysis and comparison of excess production capacity, overproduction andexcess production concept, the similarities and differences between these concepts are putforward. At the same time, this paper introduces the related theory of excess productioncapacity, mainly includes the capital circulation and the theory of capitalism overproduction,industry life cycle theory, excess investment theory and soft budget constraint theory.
  
  The second part: the development course and the present situation of the iron and steelindustry in Hebei province. This part mainly introduces the iron and steel industry in Hebeiprovince since the founding of new China experienced three stages of development, namelythe system establishment stage, industry adjustment stage and the new stage of development.
  
  Analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the iron and steel industry in Hebei province.
  
  The third part: Hebei iron and steel industry overcapacity situation analysis. This partmainly introduces the performance and characteristics of Hebei iron and steel industryovercapacity and the dangers of excess capacity and related content.
  
  The fourth part: the cause of Hebei iron and steel industry overcapacity. This part fromthree aspects: government, market and enterprises to explore the cause of Hebei iron and steelindustry overcapacity, the reason includes the government's investment impulse andunreasonable industrial development policy; Market entry exit mechanism is not sound, thecontradiction between supply and demand imbalance; Backward but also the technical levelof enterprises, product homogeneity, the pursuit of scale competition effect, etc.
  
  The fifth part: iron and steel industry overcapacity governance at home and abroadexperience and enlightenment. This part mainly introduces the history of the United States,Japan, two countries with excess capacity, and governance of excess capacity summarizes theforeign iron and steel industry overcapacity management experience, based on this, discussesthe governance capacity of foreign experience to our enlightenment.
  
  The sixth part: Suggestions on advancing the governance of Hebei iron and steel industryovercapacity. This part from two aspects of supply and demand put forward to promote thegovernment, market and enterprise three main management Suggestions on iron and steelindustry overcapacity. Mainly includes: the transformation government function, realizing thegreen GDP evaluation mechanism, perfect the system of the excess capacity of policies andregulations; Improve the market entry and exit mechanism, deepen the annexation andreorganization, improve industrial concentration; Vigorously promote scientific andtechnological innovation, and promote the product structure optimization and qualityperformance, real transformation of the mode of development and promote upgrading of theindustry.
  
  The seventh part: conclusion. This part of the main ideas of this article has carried on thesummary, and points out the exist some disadvantages in the process of research; overcapacityproblem laid a solid foundation for future study.
  
  Key Words: Hebei Province The iron and steel industry Overcapacity Cause offormation Countermeasures and Suggestions


  目 錄
  
  中文摘要
  
  Abstract
  
  引 言
  
  (一) 研究背景及意義
  
  1. 研究背景
  
  2. 研究意義
  
  (二) 國內外研究現狀
  
  1. 國外研究現狀
  
  2. 國內研究現狀
  
  (三) 研究內容及方法
  
  1. 研究內容
  
  2. 研究方法
  
  (四) 論文的重點、難點及創新點
  
  1. 論文重點
  
  2. 論文難點
  
  3. 論文創新點
  
  一、產能過剩相關概念界定和理論研究概述
  
  (一) 相關概念界定
  
  1. 產能過剩的內涵及評價指標
  
  2. 產能過剩的主要特征
  
  3. 產能過剩與生產過剩、產量過剩的比較
  
  (二) 相關理論研究
  
  1. 資本循環和資本主義生產過剩理論
  
  2. 產業的生命周期理論
  
  3. 投資過剩周期理論
  
  4. 軟預算約束理論
  
  二、河北省鋼鐵行業的發展歷程及現狀
  
  (一) 河北省鋼鐵行業發展歷程
  
  1. 體系確立階段(1949-1978)
  
  2. 行業反復調整階段(1979-2000)
  
  3. 全面深化階段(2001-至今)
  
  (二) 河北省鋼鐵行業的優勢
  
  1. 歷史悠久、門類齊全
  
  2. 具備行業規模優勢
  
  3. 擁有完備的各類鋼鐵生產系統
  
  4. 國內領先的鋼鐵工業技術水平
  
  (三) 河北省鋼鐵行業的不足
  
  1. 產業布局不合理
  
  2. 產業集中度低,規模較小
  
  3. 產品質量低且產品附加值低
  
  4. 資源控制力弱,資源進口依存度高
  
  三、河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩現狀
  
  (一) 河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩的表現
  
  1. 低產能利用率
  
  2. 低利潤率
  
  3. 高負債率
  
  (二) 河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩的特征
  
  1. 產能過剩的結構性特征
  
  2. 產能過剩的階段性特征
  
  (三) 河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩的危害
  
  1. 行業波動風險增加
  
  2. 產業良性發展的基礎遭到破壞
  
  3. 國際貿易摩擦頻繁
  
  四、河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩的成因分析
  
  (一) 政府層面
  
  1. 政績考核體系的誤導
  
  2. 地方政府的投資沖動
  
  3. 產業發展政策不合理
  
  4. 預算軟約束
  
  (二) 市場層面
  
  1. 供需矛盾嚴重失衡
  
  2. 產業集中度低,布局不合理
  
  3. 產業進入和退出機制不健全
  
  4. 市場機制不健全,缺乏信息共享平臺
  
  (三) 企業層面
  
  1. 企業投資預期扭曲
  
  2. 產品同質化程度高
  
  3. 技術水平落后
  
  4. 片面追求規模競爭效應
  
  五、國外產能過剩治理的經驗借鑒與啟示
  
  (一) 美國的產能過剩與應對措施
  
  1. 美國產能過剩的歷史考察
  
  2. 美國應對產能過剩采取的措施
  
  (二) 日本的產能過剩與應對措施
  
  1. 日本產能過剩的歷史考察
  
  2. 日本應對產能過剩采取的措施
  
  (三) 國外產能過剩治理的經驗借鑒
  
  1. 加大財政投資
  
  2. 完善稅收優惠政策
  
  3. 加強政府采購力度
  
  4. 完善社會保障體系
  
  (四) 國外產能過剩治理的啟示
  
  1. 明確市場機制是資源配置的主體地位
  
  2. 加強政府宏觀調控和制度創新
  
  3. 適度擴大內需
  
  4. 建立準確的信息發布制度
  
  六、推進河北省鋼鐵行業治理產能過剩的對策建議
  
  (一) 政府層面
  
  1. 轉變政府職能,實行綠色 GDP 考核機制
  
  2. 完善財稅管理體系,規范政府投資行為
  
  3. 完善化解過剩產能的政策法規體系
  
  4. 重拳治理“僵尸企業”,淘汰落后產能
  
  (二) 市場層面
  
  1. 通過國內國際兩個市場擴大有效需求
  
  2. 實施兼并重組,提高產業集中度
  
  3. 完善市場進入和退出機制
  
  4. 利用大數據平臺,強化過剩產能的跟蹤治理
  
  (三) 企業層面
  
  1. 大力推進科技創新,促進產品結構優化和品質增效
  
  2. 切實轉變發展方式,促進產業優化升級
  
  3. 積極實施“走出去”戰略,加強國際產能合作
  
  4. 推進鋼鐵行業供給側結構性改革
  
  結 論
  
  參考文獻
  
  后 記
    王琳. 河北省鋼鐵行業產能過剩治理問題研究[D].河北師范大學,2016.
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